Carnegie Science Endorses the March for Science

Washington, D.C.-Carnegie Science believes that the March for Science is the perfect opportunity to showcase the connections between scientific discovery, technology, economic strength, global security, human and animal health, and the condition of our planet. We fully support the official March for Science mission, which “champions robustly funded and publicly communicated science as a pillar of human freedom and prosperity.”

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Washington, DC—Rock samples from northeastern Canada retain chemical signals that help explain what Earth’s crust was like more than 4 billion years ago, reveals new work from Carnegie’s Richard Carlson and Jonathan O’Neil of the University of Ottawa. Their work is published by Science.   There is...
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    On Tuesday night, George Church told us that a fascination with animatronic Abraham Lincoln at the 1964 World’s Fair partially inspired him to become a scientist.

     

    This seems fitting, somehow, since Church, a Harvard Medical School geneticist and joint Harvard-MIT professor of health sciences and technology, spent much of the night talking about potential applications for his work that felt straight out of a fairground exhibit touting the world of the future.

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Washington, D.C.--Plant Biology postdoctoral research associate since 2012, Jia-Ying Zhu was awarded the sixth PIE award for her creativity, productivity, being a great team player in research, “and also an active and caring member of the Carnegie Department of Plant Biology (DPB) community.” The Postdoctoral Innovation and Excellence Awards are made through nominations from the department directors and chosen by the Office of the President.

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Washington, DC— Sometimes a brown dwarf is actually a planet—or planet-like anyway. A team led by Carnegie’s Jonathan Gagné, and including researchers from the Institute for Research on Exoplanets (iREx) at Université de Montréal, the American Museum of Natural History, and University of California San Diego, discovered that what astronomers had previously thought was one of the closest brown dwarfs to our own Sun is in fact a planetary mass object.

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Recovered minerals that originated in the deep mantle can give scientists a rare glimpse into the dynamic processes occurring deep inside of the Earth and into the history of the planet’s mantle layer. A team co-led by Carnegie's Yingwei Fei has discovered a rare sample of the mineral majorite that originated at least 235 miles below Earth’s surface. Majorite is a type of garnet formed only at depths greater than 100 miles. Fascinatingly, the majorite sample Fei’s team found in Northern China was encased inside a regular garnet—like mineralogical nesting dolls.

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Washington, D.C.—BioEYES was accepted to participate in a National Science Foundation (NSF) video competition on May 15-22, 2017. BioEYES supporters are encouraged to go to the competition website at stemforall2017.videohall.com and share and vote for the BioEYES video! (Note the guidelines for the three ways to vote.

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In mammals, most lipids, such as fatty acids and cholesterol, are absorbed into the body via the small intestine. The complexity of the cells and fluids that inhabit this organ make it very difficult to study in a laboratory setting. The goal of the Farber lab is to better understand the cell and...
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The Fan laboratory studies the molecular mechanisms that govern mammalian development, using the mouse as a model. They use a combination of biochemical, molecular and genetic approaches to identify and characterize signaling molecules and pathways that control the development and maintenance of...
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The Gall laboratory studies all aspects of the cell nucleus, particularly the structure of chromosomes, the transcription and processing of RNA, and the role of bodies inside the cell nucleus, especially the Cajal body (CB) and the histone locus body (HLB). Much of the work makes use of the giant...
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Capital Science Evening Lectures
Wednesday, May 31, 2017 -
6:30pm to 8:00pm

Volcanic eruptions pose an increasing threat to human lives and infrastructure in today's rapidly globalizing world, leading to a need for more-sensitive and accurate tools for detecting and...

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Capital Science Evening Lectures
Thursday, June 22, 2017 -
6:30pm to 8:00pm

An electronic current is made up of the flow of electrons. As engineers shrink electrical transistors down to nanoscale dimensions, electrons get trapped, making it difficult for digital computers...

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Some 40 thousand tons of extraterrestrial material fall on Earth every year. This cosmic debris provides cosmochemist Conel Alexander with information about the formation of the Solar System, our galaxy, and perhaps the origin of life. Alexander studies meteorites to determine what went on before...
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Understanding how plants grow can lead to improving crops.  Plant scientist Kathryn Barton, who joined Carnegie in 2001, investigates just that: what controls the plant’s body plan, from  the time it’s an embryo to its adult leaves. These processes include how plant parts form different...
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We are all made of stardust. Almost all of the chemical elements were produced by nuclear reactions in the interiors of stars. When a star dies a fraction of the elements is released into the inter-stellar gas clouds, out of which successive generations of stars form.  Astronomers have a basic...
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Carnegie Science, Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Institution, Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
May 24, 2017

Pasadena, CA— A team of astronomers including Carnegie’s Eduardo Bañados and led by Roberto Decarli of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy has discovered a new kind of galaxy which, although extremely old—formed less than a billion years after the Big Bang—creates stars more than a hundred times faster than our own Milky Way.

Their findings are published by Nature.

The team’s discovery could help solve a cosmic puzzle—a mysterious population of surprisingly massive galaxies from when the universe was only about 10 percent of its current age.

After first observing these galaxies a few years ago, astronomers proposed that they must have been created from hyper-

May 17, 2017

Former Carnegie fellow and current trustee, astronomer Sandra Faber, has been awarded the 2017 Gruber Foundation Cosmology Prize. She was awarded the lifetime achievement award for “her groundbreaking studies of the structure, dynamics, and evolution of galaxies.” Her work provided the impetus to study dark matter, the invisible material that makes up most of the mass of the universe, in addition to  “ the recognition that black holes reside at the heart of most large galaxies."

Faber also has a long history of contributing to  innovative telescope technology, and she has “aided and inspired the work of astronomers and cosmologists worldwide.”

The prize will be awarded this

May 16, 2017

Washington, D.C.--Plant Biology postdoctoral research associate since 2012, Jia-Ying Zhu was awarded the sixth PIE award for her creativity, productivity, being a great team player in research, “and also an active and caring member of the Carnegie Department of Plant Biology (DPB) community.” The Postdoctoral Innovation and Excellence Awards are made through nominations from the department directors and chosen by the Office of the President. They recognize exemplary accomplishments in science, education, and community service.

Jia-Ying has made many innovative contributions to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control plant growth according to hormonal,

May 15, 2017

Washington, D.C.—With the growing frequency and magnitude of toxic freshwater algal blooms becoming an increasingly worrisome public health concern, Carnegie scientists Jeff Ho and Anna Michalak, along with colleagues, have made new advances in understanding the drivers behind Lake Erie blooms and their implications for lake restoration. The work is published in two related studies.

Using data from NASA’s Landsat 5 instrument, the researchers generated new estimates of historical algal blooms in Lake Erie, more than doubling the number of years previously available for scientists to investigate, from 14 to 32. (This first study was published in Remote Sensing of Environment.)

May 31, 2017

Volcanic eruptions pose an increasing threat to human lives and infrastructure in today's rapidly globalizing world, leading to a need for more-sensitive and accurate tools for detecting and interpreting signs of volcanic unrest. Fortunately, most volcanoes give subtle indications of their future eruptive potential that can be detected using state-of-the-art seismic instrumentation. Dr. Roman will explore the recent development of several new paradigms for eruption forecasting and their implications for our understanding of how volcanoes work.

Dr. Diana Roman, Staff Scientist, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Science
#Volcanoes

The Capital

June 22, 2017

An electronic current is made up of the flow of electrons. As engineers shrink electrical transistors down to nanoscale dimensions, electrons get trapped, making it difficult for digital computers to work as well as they should. In contrast, our brains have nano-sized channels through which tiny charged particles pass freely when they are opened. Dr. Boahen’s team creates computer technology that mimics the way our brains are wired.

Dr. Kwabena Boahen, Professor, Bioengineering and Electrical Engineering, Stanford University
#BrainComputers

The Capital Science Evenings are made possible in part by the generous support of Margaret and Will Hearst.

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The Carnegie Hubble program is an ongoing comprehensive effort that has a goal of determining the Hubble constant, the expansion rate of the universe,  to a systematic accuracy of 2%. As part of this program, astronomers are obtaining data at the 3.6 micron wavelength using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on Spitzer Space Telescope. The team has demonstrated that the mid-infrared period-luminosity relation for Cepheids, variable stars used to determine distances and the rate of the expansion,  at 3.6 microns is the most accurate means of measuring Cepheid distances to date. At 3.6 microns, it is possible to minimize the known remaining systematic uncertainties in the Cepheid

In mammals, most lipids, such as fatty acids and cholesterol, are absorbed into the body via the small intestine. The complexity of the cells and fluids that inhabit this organ make it very difficult to study in a laboratory setting. The goal of the Farber lab is to better understand the cell and molecular biology of lipids within digestive organs by exploiting the many unique attributes of the clear zebrafish larva  to visualize lipid uptake and processing in real time.  Given their utmost necessity for proper cellular function, it is not surprising that defects in lipid metabolism underlie a number of human diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis.

The Farber

The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) mission to orbit Mercury following three flybys of that planet is a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. Understanding Mercury, and the forces that have shaped it is fundamental to understanding the terrestrial planets and their evolution. This is the first orbital mission around the innermost planet. It took years of planning and complex trajectory to reach Mercury. Carnegie scientists have led the way revealing results that have redefined what we thought we knew about Mercury and the other rocky planets. For more information see http://messenger.jhuapl.edu/

Fresh water constitutes less than 1% of the surface water on earth, yet the importance of this simple molecule to all life forms is immeasurable. Water represents the most vital reagent for chemical reactions occurring in a cell. In plants, water provides the structural support necessary for plant growth. It acts as the carrier for nutrients absorbed from the soil and transported to the shoot. It also provides the chemical components necessary to generate sugar and biomass from light and carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. While the importance of water to plants is clear, an understanding as to how plants perceive water is limited. Most studies have focused on environmental conditions

Viktor Struzhkin develops new techniques for high-pressure experiments to measure transport and magnetic properties of materials to understand aspects of geophysics, planetary science, and condensed-matter physics. Among his goals are to detect the transition of hydrogen into a high-temperature superconductor under pressure—a state predicted by theory, but thus far unattained—to discover new superconductors, and to learn what happens to materials in Earth’s deep interior where pressure and temperature conditions are extreme. 

Recently, a team including Struzhkin was the first to discover the conditions under which nickel oxide can turn into an electricity-conducting metal. Nickel

Junior investigator Zhao Zhang joined Carnegie in November 2014. He studies how elements with the ability to “jump” around the genome, called transposons, are controlled in egg, sperm, and other somatic tissues in order to understand how transposons contribute to genomic instability and to mutations that lead to inherited disease and cancer. He particularly focuses on transposon control and its consequences in gonads compared to other tissues and has discovered novel connections to how gene transcripts are processed in the nucleus.To accomplish this work, Zhang frequently develops new tools and techniques, a characteristic of many outstanding Carnegie researchers. He recently received

While the planets in our Solar System are astonishingly diverse, all of them move around the Sun in approximately the same orbital plane, in the same direction, and primarily in circular orbits. Over the past 25 years Butler's work has focused on improving the measurement precision of stellar Doppler velocities, from 300 meters per second in the 1980s to 1 meter a second in the 2010s to detect planets around other stars. The ultimate goal is to find planets that resemble the Earth.

Butler designed and built the iodine absorption cell system at Lick Observatory, which resulted in the discovery of 5 of the first 6 known extrasolar planets.  This instrument has become the de facto

The entire universe—galaxies, stars, and planets—originally condensed from a vast network of tenuous, gaseous filaments, known as the intergalactic medium, or the gaseous cosmic web. Most of the matter in this giant reservoir has never been incorporated into galaxies; it keeps floating about in intergalactic space, largely in the form of ionized hydrogen gas.

 Michael Rauch is interested in all aspects of the intergalactic medium. He uses large telescopes, like the Magellans, to take spectra—light that reveals the chemical makeup of distant objects— of background quasars, which are highly energetic and extremely remote. He is looking for evidence of gas clouds located between the